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Howitzer Specs

Caliber: 122mm
Weight: 16 tons (35,273 lbs.)
Shell: separate loading, cased charge
Maximum Firing Range: Conventional – 15.3 km (9.5 mi), Extended – 21.9 km (13.6 mi)
Muzzle Velocity: 680 m/s (2,200 ft./s)
Rate of Fire: Maximum – 5 rpm, Sustained 1-2 rpm
Armor: 20mm (.78 in)
Engine: YaMZ-238N 300 hp diesel 220 kW

The 2S1 Gvozdika 122mm SPH is a self-propelled howitzer designed by the Soviet Union that resembles the PT-76, but is basically a lengthened version of the MT-LB APC mounting. It is sometimes known as the alternative Russian designation of SAU-122, but it is commonly known as the Gvozdika in the Soviet Army. The 2S1 Gvozdika is fully amphibious, even with little preparation, and is propelled by its tracks once afloat. Wider tracks are also available to allow this self-propelled howitzer to operate in the snow or in swamp conditions. It has infrared night-vision capabilities and is NBC protected.

The first prototype of the 2S1 Gvozdika was created in 1969 and then entered service with the Soviet Army in the early 1970s. It was first seen in public in 1974 at a Polish Army parade. This howitzer was deployed in large numbers, with 72 per tank division, 36 per motorized rifle division. The United States Army designated the weapon as the M1974 and manufactured it in Bulgarian, Polish, and Russian state factories.

2S1 Gvozdikas have seven road wheels on either side with running gear that may be fitting with different width tracks to meet the demands of various types of terrain. The interior is made up of the driver’s compartment on the left side, an engine compartment on the right, and a fighting compartment at the rear. In the fighting compartment, the commander sits to the left, with a loader on the right and a gunner at the front. The all-welded turret is found above the fighting compartment. This design utilizes a 122mm howitzer that is based on the towed D-30 howitzer. This gun is equipped with a fume extractor, power rammer, and double-baffle muzzle brake. It was designed to fire:

  • HE (high explosive)
  • Leaflet
  • Armor-piercing HE
  • Flechette
  • Chemical rounds

Many countries all across the globe have created variants of the 2S1 Gvozdika 122mm self-propelled howitzer, including:

  • Soviet Union/Russia
    • MT-LBU
    • UR-77 “Meteorit”
    • RKhM “Kashalot”
    • 2S34 “Chosta”
    • 2S15 “Norov”
  • Poland
    • 2S1M Goździk
    • 2S1T Goździk
    • Rak carrier
    • LPG
  • Romania
    • Model 89
  • Iran
    • Raad-1
  • Bulgaria
    • BMP-23
    • BMP-30
  • Sudan
    • Abu Fatma

For more information on the 2S1 Gvozdika 122mm SPH, defense procurement services, or military training and education, contact the experts at UDC USA today.